Learning During COVID: The Relationship Between Learner Empowered Competence, Comfort With Technology, and Time Management


  • Dee Kinney Author
  • Karen Brown Author
  • Jeffrey H. Kuznekoff Author


time-management, competence, technology-use, student persistence, student retention


This study examines the relationship between college students’ comfort with technology, time management, and learner-empowered competence before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Students (N = 364) enrolled in several college courses from spring 2019 through fall 2021 were recruited to participate. The study found that student comfort with technology used in their courses increased over the course of the pandemic. In addition, this study found a correlation between learner-empowered competence and time management. Practical implications for instructors are offered.